Scoping Review of Wearables in Monitoring Opioid, Tobacco, and Alcohol Abuse: A Potential Intervention for West Virginia
Wearable technology is a useful tool to tackle the problem of substance abuse among populations by tracking and monitoring addictions and offering diagnosis by proxy. This review seeks to understand the role of wearable technology in managing addiction, with particular focus on opioid, alcohol, and tobacco abuse. We adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines and conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science (WoS), and IEEE Explore databases. English-language peer-reviewed articles published between 2013 and 2022 that examined the use of wearable devices for addiction management were included. The review acknowledged 25 relevant studies from various countries, primarily the United States. A majority of the studies examined alcohol addiction, with Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM) being the most commonly used technology. Our findings highlight the positive impact of wearables such as Q sensor™ Affectiva, Spire Health Tag, and Empatica E4 sensors on monitoring and managing opioid addiction, including their potential in addressing the opioid crisis in the United States. Moreover, the data underscored the importance of wearable technology in studying smoking patterns, with devices like (Automated Smoking Perception and Recording) ASPIRE and (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker) PACT 2.0 showing high agreement with other indicators of smoking characteristics. Despite the progress made, the review identifies a need for more research into wearables for opioid addiction.
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