Effects of the biocide triclosan on multiple life stages of ferns Onoclea sensibilis and Osmunda claytoniana
Keywords:fern, triclosan, gametophyte, sporophyte
AbstractThe chemical triclosan is an antibacterial agent that was used in many consumer products, such as soaps, lotions, toothpaste, cosmetics and other personal care products. Triclosan passes through the processes of wastewater treatment plants and ultimately contaminates rivers and other waterways. The soil is also contaminated using wastewater sludge or biosolids as fertilizer on agricultural and reclamation land projects. Triclosan has been shown to inhibit seed germination, growth rate, and development in wide variety of plants including many crop plants. Aquatic algae are particularly sensitive to low levels of triclosan. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of triclosan on the life cycle of the sensitive fern (Osmunda claytoniana), and the royal fern (Onoclea sensibilis). The use of ferns in this study is important because they share a phylogenetic link between algae and higher plants. Ferns also have a distinct heteromorphic life cycle that lends itself to examining the effects of environmental chemicals on different aspects of plant development. Spores were germinated, grown to gametophyte stage and then allowed to produce sporophytes in the presence of concentrations of triclosan measured in contaminated agricultural lands. Triclosan was found to inhibit spore germination, gametophyte growth and alter sporophyte development.
Amorim, M. J., E. Oliveira, A.M. Soares, and J. J. Scott-Fordsmand, 2010. Predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for triclosan to terrestrial species (invertebrates and plants). Environment International. 36: 338-343.
An, J., Q. Zhou, Y. Sun and Z. Xu. 2009. Ecotoxicolgy effects of typical personal care products on seed germination and seedling development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chemosphere. 76: 1428-1434.
Buchholz, J.T. 1922. Developmental selection in vascular plants. Botanical Gazette. 73: 249-286.
Cha, J. and A.M. Cupples. 2009. Detection of the antimicrobials triclobarban and triclosan in agricultural soils following land application of municipal biosolids. Water Res. 43: 2522-2530.
Chiou. W.L. and D.R. Rarrar. 1997. Antheridiogen production and response in Polypodiaceae species. Am. J. Bot. 84(5): 622-640.
Cooney, C.M. 2010. Triclosan comes under scrutiny. Environ. Health Perspectives. 118(6): A242.
Kinney, C.A, E.T. Furlong, SD. Zaugg, M.R. Burkhardt, S.L. Werner, J.D. Cahill and G.R. Jorgensen. 2006. Survey of organic wastewater contaminants in biosolids destined for land application. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40: 7207-7215.
Lozano, N., C. P. Rice, M. Ramirez and A. Torrents. 2010. Fate of Triclosan in agricultural soils after biosolid applications. Chemosphere 78: 760-766.
Lui, F., G. Ying, L. Yang, and Q. Zhou. 2008. Terrestrial ecotoxicological effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72: 86-92.
Macherius, A., T. Eggen, W. Lorenz, M. Moeder, J. Ondruschka, and T. Reemtsma. 2012. Metabolism of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46: 10797-10804.
Macherius, A., B. Seiwert, P. Shroder, C. Huber, W. Lorenz and T. Reemstsma. 2014. Identification of plant metabolites of environmental contaminants by UPLC-QToF-MS: The in vitro metabolism of triclosan in horseradish. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62: 1001-1009.
Mottier, D.M. 1925. Polyembryony in certain Polypodiaceae and Osmundaceae. Botanical Gazette. 80: 331-336.
Mou, Z., Y. He, Y. Dai, X. Liu, and J. Li. 2000. Deficiency in fatty acid synthesis leads to premature cell death and dramatic alterations in plant morphology. Plant Cell. 12: 405-417.
Murashige, T. and F. Skoog. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473-497.
Ravi, B.X. 2016. In vitro polyembryony induction in a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartite Sw. Asian Pacific J. Reproduction. 5: 345-350.
Ricart, M., H. Guasch, M. Alberch, D. Barcelo, C. Bommineau, A. Geiszinger, M. La Farre, J. Ferrer, F. Ricciardi, A.M. Romani, S. Morin, L. Proia, L. Sala, D. Sureda and S. Sabater. 2010. Triclosan persistence through wastewater treatment plants and its potential toxic effects on river biofilms. Aquatic Toxicology 100: 346-353.
Roberts, J. O.R. Price, N. Bettles, C. Rendal and R. van Egmond. 2014. Accounting for dissociation and photolysis: A review of the algal toxicity of triclosan. Environ. Toxic Chem. 33: 2551-2559.
Safety and Effectiveness of Health Care Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use, 82 Fed. Reg. 21 CFR Part 310 (Final Rule Dec. 20, 2017).
Vandhana, S., P.R. Deepa, G. Aparna, U. Jayanthi, and S. Krishnakumar. 2010. Evaluation of suitable solvents for testing the anti-proliferative activity of triclosan - a hydrophobic drug in cell culture. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 47: 166-171.
Walters, E., K. McClellan and R.U. Halden. 2010. Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms. Water Res. 44: 6011-6020.
Wilson, B.A., V.H. Smith, F. Denoyelles Jr.and C.K. Larive. 2003. Effects of three pharmaceutical and personal care products on natural freshwater algal assemblages. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 1713-1719.
Zarate, F. M., S.E. Schulwitz, K.J. Stevens, and B.J. Venables. 2012. Bioconcentration of ticlosan, methyl-ticlosan, and triclocarban in the plants and sediments of a constructed wetland. Chemosphere 88: 323-329.
How to Cite
Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science applies the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC) license to works we publish. By virtue of their appearance in this open access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.